Wednesday, November 12, 2014

Travel in the Plain Style


          In order to increase my personal understanding of how Plain Style writing is used to attract people to specific destinations, I closely monitored differing marketing strategies aimed at garnering tourism. Because marketing is the foundation of travel, it is important to examine how various writing strategies are used to effectively increase the number of people that go to a specific place. Simple but elegant writing is necessary to attract different cohorts of people to a location or destination; therefore different writing techniques are used to fulfill the creator’s intention. Common literary devices found in literature within the sphere of travel will be analyzed and discussed to determine their effectiveness at captivating the audience and increasing people’s desire to travel. My critique of plain style writing emphasizes the potential variances in writing styles that exist within the sphere of travel and examines how different writing techniques function.
            The use of the plain style is obvious when examining literature from the sphere of travel, often portraying significant cultural aspects that highlight important aspects of a region. This is apparent in the BBC article about the annual “Beef-A-Rama” festival held in Minocqua, Wisconsin. A portion of the article states, “Once judges conclude their official tasting, the proud participants walk what remains of their beef dish down Oneida Street led by the University of Wisconsin marching band. Mini-floats often accompany the roasts, and many marchers stay true to the festival’s theme by dressing in cow costumes. Like lambs to the slaughter, all the roasts end up at the slicer, feeding the more than 10,000 people in attendance with approximately 2,700 sandwiches until the winners are declared in the afternoon”. This article serves to highlight a long-lasting Midwestern tradition by subtly incorporating various literary strategies to attract and engage the reader. An important part of plain writing is that the reading level is not very high, because the information is presented in an accessible and easily understood way. The reading level for the aforementioned text was written at a 13.1 grade level, which suggests that the piece was written in a specific and concise manner while maintaining a sense of professional identity. The plain style does not always guarantee that the existing literature within the sphere is written at a lower grade level, as the term “plain” merely suggests a more direct approach at providing explanation. Therefore, the content can still remain complex while falling within the category of plain style, even if it may appear to be more official in nature because of the overall complexity surrounding the topic.
            This article is very important to discuss in greater detail because how it attempts to offer a new and refreshed perspective about a traditional event that many people are completely unaware of. Therefore, the plain style is appropriate for communicating because many people are not a part of the “Beef-A-Rama” sphere of activity, and do not possess any prior experience or knowledge about the event. The plain style serves to deliver information in a concise and concrete manner that does not overstate information and likely confuse the reader. The article serves a specific purpose, which is to inform and enlighten the reader about the cultural event. If the article were written in the official style it would contain extensive jargon, and would likely tie extensively to the sphere of agriculture and meat processing. The information contained in the article would be more complex and become inaccessible to most readers. Therefore, the article is essential for increasing public awareness about the event and serves to make the sphere of travel more accessible to the general public. The article serves to present a new and interesting idea to the greatest array of people possible, therefore plain writing techniques are used to fulfill this goal.
            Travel falls under the same umbrella of ideology when approached from a global perspective as well, as traveling is a globally encompassing sphere that people engage in everyday. Therefore, it is important for the sphere to remain open and simple, as any amount of complexity or elaboration will draw a specific cohort of people away. The following article entitled “America’s Favorite Towns” attempt to unpack the regional and cultural distinctions that draw tourists to different places throughout the United States. The article published by Travel and Leisure states, “Readers rated Breckenridge a top ski destination, but year round they also found it highly walkable-or, really, hikable. One great outing is the three-mile round-trip along the Spruce Creek Trail to Upper Mohawk Lake, with views of Continental Falls as it cascades down a rocky face. Afterward, treat yourself to one of the town’s highly ranked craft beers, such as the Avalanche Ale at Breckenridge Brewery or a Belgian wit – with coriander and orange notes – from newcomer Broken Compass Brewing Company. Perhaps thanks to its high density of ski bums, Breckenridge also scored well for its vivid people watching”. This article is important to discuss because it incorporates a few important writing techniques to convey a message of importance and attract tourists to the aforementioned locations. The author uses precise and clear language to capture the attention of the reader, which can be seen when reviewing the portion of the article that discusses the available beers. This is a very important aspect for the author to discuss, because alcohol is an engrained aspect of American culture and will undoubtedly serve to attract people to the location. The author was able to understand that cultural appeal is a necessary tool to attract tourists to the location; therefore the appeal of alcohol is used to potentially bring more people to the region. It is also very important to note that the author does not incorporate advanced or stylistic writing techniques into the article, because the intention and purpose of the writing is to appeal to the widest array of potential readers. This means that people that are unfamiliar with the area and culture should be able to understand the information discussed about Colorado, which necessitates that the writing is simplistic and readily accessible. Even though the writing is simple in composition, it is very important for it to remain unrefined because the sphere of travel does not often incorporate specific jargon or regional terms because people that are not previously familiar with a region or culture will not be able to grasp or understand the concepts. In order to make the reading readily accessible to the widest array of people, the author has to make sure that the writing does not begin to incorporate broad themes or over-arching ideas into the text, as they will not be understood by people that are unfamiliar with the area, which will decrease the likelihood of travel to the area.
            Although the use of the official style in writing offers an opportunity to develop intellectual ideas and themes, this is not conducive for attracting people to a specific location. The sphere of travel uses a more simple writing approach known as the plain style to present information in an uncomplicated and simple format, which enables the text to remain accessible to a wide array of people. I believe that traveling will remain a part of the plain style of writing forever because of the existing differences between language and cultural identity. As the ultimate goal of literature surrounding travel is to attract people to different locations, it is important to note that people come from many different cultural backgrounds, with unique ideas about societal function. It is the responsibility of the authors’ within the sphere of travel to create texts and compositions that can be understood by a wide array of people, in order to ensure that travel occurs to the greatest possible extent. Therefore, the plain style functions for the sphere of travel because written information is delivered in a simple way that is readily understood by the widest variance of people.
            -Jacob Akin



Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Plain Style

In the past 20 years, J.K. Rowling has become a household name, appealing to children and adults alike with her wildly famous Harry Potter series. Potter themed restaurants, amusements parks, websites, video games, and countless posters, t-shirts, and mugs continue to make millions, even seven years after the release of the final installment. With 450 million Harry Potter books, translated into 73 languages, currently in print, a “Harry Potter virgin” (assuming there are any left) might assume that, upon picking up the series’ first installment, Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone, they are about to read Faulkner-worthy prose. They would, however, be mistaken. Rowling’s novels tend to make use of the plain language, so much so that some critics refer to her writing as “primitive.” Is Rowling’s use of the plain style a stroke of literary magic, or was Harry Potter’s success the result of nothing more than the use of a good luck charm?
Plain language is used in favor of the official style to communicate ideas clearly and concisely. Its intention is to make absolutely certain that the reader understands what is trying to be said. Rowling achieved that level of understanding throughout Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone.
“’Hello, dear,’ she said. ‘First time at Hogwarts? Ron’s new, too.’
She pointed at the last and youngest of her sons. He was tall, thin, and gangling, with freckles, big hands and feet, and a long nose.
‘Yes,’ said Harry. ‘The thing is – the thing is, I don’t know how to –‘
‘How to get onto the platform?’ she said kindly, and Harry nodded.
‘Not to worry,’ she said. ‘All you have to do is walk straight at the barrier between platforms nine and ten. Don’t stop and don’t be scared you’ll crash into it, that’s very important. Best do it at a bit of a run if you’re nervous. Go on, go now before Ron.’
‘Er – okay,’ said Harry.
He pushed his trolley around and stared at the barrier. It looked very solid.”
This excerpt of Harry’s first time boarding Platform 9 ¾ reads at a 3.2 grade level and has a Flesch-Kincaid reading ease of 95.2 out of 100. Rowling uses the active voice to describe the happenings of Platform 9 ¾. The active voice is much more forward and uncomplicated than other verb usage, making it perfect for inexperienced readers who are still building their language skills. She also writes in very short, plain sentences, like “It looked very solid.” This phrase, in particular, also draws in some of the creative style, since Rowling is not only trying to convey the solid-ness of the wall but also Harry’s apprehension about charging head first into sturdy bricks.
            This initial first impression of Ron Weasley is also largely dominated by the plain style. Rowling doesn’t describe him in any complicated manner. The reader can immediately create a mental image of Ron without having to interpret complex metaphors to picture his tall, thin, “ganglyness” and large nose. As any person who’s ever even heard of Harry Potter (so, essentially everyone with basic language capabilities) knows, Ron Weasley will become a central character throughout the entirety of the series. He will be described many times as he grows and changes, but Rowling’s first description of him will always ring true, allowing readers to feel that, even before seeing him come to life in the movies, they could pick him out if he happened to be walking next to them on the street.
            Rowling seems to have made a conscious effort to make all of her characters easy to build in her readers’ imaginations. When creating the troll that nearly killed Hermione in the girls’ lavatory, she used several analogies to commonly known objects.
“It was a horrible sight. Twelve feet tall, its skin was a dull, granite gray, its great lumpy body like a boulder with its small bald held perched on top like a coconut. It had short legs thick as tree trunks with flat, horny feet. The smell coming from it was incredible.”
Again, the creative and plain styles collide in Rowling’s writing. Analogies, of course, are a creative strategy, but they are also plain the way that Rowling used them since she compared the troll to such typical objects. Nearly all children have had some experience with boulders, coconuts, and tree trunks and can therefore use their prior knowledge to create an image of the troll in their minds.
To adults reading the Harry Potter novels, this could seem like the work of a child, rather than a grown woman. It was this level of accessibility, however, that got Rowling’s novel published in the first place. After being rejected by 13 publishers who said that her book was far too long for any child to read, one publisher decided to hand off the manuscript to his eight-year-old daughter, who was in the second or third grade at the time. She loved the story and begged for more, ultimately bringing Harry’s universe to life. With the massive popularity the Harry Potter franchise has gained, it’s easy to forget who the stories were originally intended for – children.
            However, this is clearly not a “Dick and Jane” book. The plot is entirely complex, and its complexity only increases throughout the series. Rowling has gone so in depth with the world of Hogwarts that it would be nearly impossible for a reader to retain everything, even having read all of the books. Entire websites and encyclopedias have been devoted to delving into what is now referred to as the Potter-verse. Now, imagine that Rowling had written like William Faulkner. How would anyone have ever understood the books? At many points, plain language was necessary solely to be sure that the reader is following the inner workings of Rowling’s mind. With their elaborate family trees and distinct voices and interests, her characters could be real people.
It’s fairly obvious that any successful children’s book must be geared toward children in terms of its reading level. Despite this, critics still nitpick Rowling’s writing, asserting that, even for a third grade level, it is not well written. A main complaint that book reviewers have is Rowling’s excessive use of adverbs, and they do have a point. Just on page 23 of the book, Rowling wrote, “Harry put in hopefully,” “said Aunt Petunia slowly,” “Dudley began to cry loudly,” and “said Aunt Petunia frantically.” Although adverbs themselves are not inherently plain, the way Rowling uses them seems to line up with the plain style. They are intended to describe the verb to give the reader a more accurate interpretation of what is happening between the characters with only one word as opposed to several. Many may make the argument that a book, even one intended for children, of such length should be higher quality writing.
  Rowling used her staple adverbs far less frequently as the series progressed, and by the seventh novel, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, her descriptions became much more creative and mature. For example, “’That’s Xenophilius Lovegood, he’s the father of a friend of ours,’ said Ron. His pugnacious tone indicated that they were not about to laugh at Xenophilius, despite clear provocation.” In Sorcerer’s Stone, Rowling typically used only one word to explain the tone with which a character spoke. In Deathly Hallows, she expanded upon these explanations, making them much less plain and raising the grade level. This shift seems to make sense, however, because, as Harry and his friends approach the age of 17, making them legal adults in the wizarding world, the books’ themes become more mature and stray from juvenile fiction into young adult fiction. Is it possible that Harry Potter should never have been intended for children, especially as the themes evolve and become more mature, resembling horror or science fiction genres?
Themes become darker and grittier as beloved characters are murdered and the Terrific Threesome begins to doubt their worth and ability. Even as the series developed, Rowling never forgot her intended audience, and she returned to the childlike innocence of the first novel in Deathly Hallows’ epilogue, during which all the characters get their happy endings and the language returns to plain, ending the novel with a straightforward, “The scar had not pained Harry in years. All was well.”

            J.K. Rowling’s use of the plain style in her novels makes her books widely accessible, adding to the popularity of the Harry Potter series. Harry Potter stands out among classic literature in that it’s not made up of long, complicated, metaphorically resonant sentences. The Harry Potter frenzy was driven by the series’ plot, and Rowling’s strategic use of plain language made her audience larger than anyone could have ever imagined. Although the plain style allows for clearer and deeper connections between readers and characters as well as an uncomplicated understanding of a storyline that develops to become rather complex, could Rowling have taken a different approach to improve the quality of the novels? Regardless of opinion, it is undeniable that simple as it may seem upon first glance, Rowling used language to create a story that enchanted millions and became one of the most successful authors of our time.

By Elena Montanye

Plain Style: A Staple for Advertising in Retail

Plain Style: A Staple for Advertising in Retail

            Being occasionally confused, or at times outraged, by a misleading advertising sign either within or promoting a retail store is not brand new to the average shopper. To either the experienced shopper or any retail employee, such misleading terminology is used whenever possible. The plain style used for such attraction is more certainly eye-catching, but almost always leaves out other vital information, often known as a ‘catch.’ Working as a retail worker the past few years may be a side job while studying English education at the University of Wisconsin La Crosse, but it has influenced my critical eye not only in such retail advertising, but also other hidden or missing details in other plain style texts.
            I have worked for Victoria’s Secret for over two years and absolutely love my job. However, as with any job, there comes numerous frustrations. For someone who has worked a customer service job has likely complained about numerous costumers. Unfortunately, such frustrations and unclear communication is derived from flashy, yet faulty, advertisements. What is in large, bold print is what people take note of, and can easily understand. Yet, it is the larger amount of information that is usually disguised, because the official style version of the description is not what brings people or money through the door. In addition to misleading advertising in terms of promoting purchases, such advertising strategies used also promote unhealthy standards of body image. Many aspects of advertising in the plain style such as signs, coupons, social media, and other promotions cause such confusion and frustration in a retail environment.
            One coupon customers who shop with us will recognize is a ten dollar off birthday coupon. On the front, the largest font states “$100 OFF” as well as “Happy Birthday”. The most common frustration with the coupon is the large paragraph of small print on the back of the coupon. Most people do not think about looking at the back to view the restrictions and exclusions. Costumers are more likely to understand that the coupon cannot be applied to clearance items, for it clearly states so within these exclusions. However, it is the term ‘bra multiples’ that frustrates not only many costumers, but me as well. The term ‘two for’ bras refers to PINK bras that are ‘2 for $42’ as well as the V.S. bras that are ‘2 for 49.50.’ Within the aforementioned exclusions, it states that it excludes ‘bra multiples.’ This term is too vague, and deserves more explanation to clarify any confusion. Rather than using a casual and unfamiliar term, the text should go into further detail explaining that the coupon cannot be combined with the ‘2 for $42’ offer or the ‘2 for $49.50’ offer. Unfortunately, the plain style text on coupons is not the only frustration plain style language causes.
The words “Free Tote with $75 sport Purchase” was presented not only on a coupon sent out to costumers, but also on a large sign visible to those walking into stores. There are few simple words that are accessible and easy to understand. On the other hand, the hidden term, ‘sport purchase’, is the concealed “catch” in this particular promotion. As an employee, I am aware that a sport purchase includes any items from of our VSX collection, or fitness line. The modest terminology does not communicate such restrictions to customers, and many are frustrated and upset when they learn such information at the register and do not receive said free tote. Even though small print under a larger heading is usually ignored, I believe that it would be more helpful and clear to costumers if the sign clearly stated what a ‘sport’ purchase would consist of. What tends to occur is many costumers arrive at the checkout, with a purchase larger than they intended on to receive the tote, but are unable to qualify for it. At that point, most people keep all of their items, spending more money than initially planned, even though they did not receive their intended free item. This is a strategy implemented with faulty, simple plain style text in order for larger profit. This unfortunate misrepresentation is common throughout other aspects of retail as well, including strategies to include you onto their mailing lists.
            PINK is commonly known as a collection by Victoria’s Secret that includes bras, panties, sweatshirt, sweatpants, and the incredibly popular, yoga pants. Several times a year, it is advertised that with a pink purchase, customers will receive a free item with their PINK purchase. Since common free items include, water bottles, mugs, flip flops, hats, totes, and more, people are excited to receive such free items. What their e-mails, texts, Facebook posts, and signs outside the store do not explain is that it is free when one is a member of PINK nation. Many times, this aspect of the hidden message is not an issue, for many people already have this application, and if not, it is easily downloadable on all smartphones. However, for people who do not have a smartphone or do wish to download the application, the sign out front stating, “Free Item with Pink Purchase” will not apply to them. After an initial discussion of the increase in smartphones and mobile cell phone plans within Chiang and Siao-Cen Tu’s article, Analyzing Behaviors Influencing Use of Mobile Coupons From The Perspective of Transaction Utility, they revealed that since, “..the delivery of coupons has expanded beyond traditional newspaper flyers and street distributions to mobile coupons. This change has led to consumers not having to passively acquire coupons from newspapers, magazines, or products…” (Chiang &Siao-Cen Tu 434). Having coupons that are easily and constantly sent via smartphone provide the easiest form of advertising. Again, this is all occurring due to vague, plain style language that led customers to downloading the application to their smartphone. I am certain that one of the ‘hidden agendas’ behind this particular strategy is acquiring personal information. Even though some costumers may refuse providing phone numbers and e-mail on the keypad at the checkout, it is impossible to have the PINK nation application without providing that information. With access to one’s e-mail and cell phone number, the company is free to send out multiple e-mails and text messages a day for constant advertising. Again, I believe on the ‘hidden agendas’ is to bombard people with advertisements as a way to become profitable. In addition to this style of language embedded into promotional coupons and signs, it is also displayed to represent other aspects.
            One of the more recent advertising launches the company portrayed was themed around “The Perfect Body.” This particular launch sparked a lot of outrage, because behind the three words, “The Perfect Body”, was several of images of models, who by most modern media standards, are considered to have actual versions of said ‘perfect body’. This play on words was used to advertise new addition to the ‘Body by Victoria’ line of bras that Victoria’s Secret carries, and even though people were aware of this, they still thought of the concept to be body shaming. On an article titled, Victoria’s Secret ‘Perfect Body’ Ads Draw Criticism , found on the Huffington Post website, they discuss a petition that was started against the campaign stating, “We would like Victoria’s Secret to change the wording on their advertisement for their bra range Body, to something that does not promote unhealthy and unrealistic standards of beauty, as well as pledge to not use such harmful marketing in the future” (Huffington Post). It is interesting that the main concern for promoting such standards of beauty is not because of the models, but rather the word choice. They plain style play on words to describe the ‘Perfect Body’ was the largest concern in this public outrage.

            Multiple aspects of advertising in the plain style such as signs, coupons, social media, and other promotions cause confusion and frustration in a retail environment. Unfortunately, I am quite certain that such tactics and strategies will never improve, but I hope that they do not progressively worsen. As I previously stated, I do enjoy my job with Victoria’s Secret, and plan to continue to work there until I begin teaching, but dealing with the constant conflict between costumer frustration and advertising confusion is definitely not one of my favorite duties of my position.  
     --Breanna Lindemuth 

Plain and Boring Do Not Always Go Hand in Hand

          Since my last critique seemed to bash The National Press Photographers Association for their use of unnecessary official style in their website preamble, I figured I should give them back all the positive credit they deserve! They have super cool aspects on their website like “The Visual Student” which is a blog that gives an overview of what many of the student members of the association are up to in relation to their journey of becoming a photojournalist. And guess what, it is mostly written in plain language! Here’s the kicker though, plain language style doesn’t have to mean it’s boring, nor does it have to sound uneducated!
            The popularity of blogging has been increasing rapidly in the past few years, and if done correctly can be a great way for anyone interested in media of all kinds, even visual journalism, to get themselves out their for public viewing. NPPA has the student blog, “The Visual Student,” which is a website any member of the association, from students to professional photojournalists. On this blog members can learn about internship possibilities, view contest-winning projects, participate in live chats, read about emerging photojournalists and their work and receive tips and advice on their own work.
            Since this blog is open to all members of the association, each member can post on the blog, and each person obviously has their own style of writing. With that being said, I am sure there are posts on the blog written with official style involved. Since blogging is so informal however, many of the posts are written with more plain style usage than official. Tone plays a big role in plain style writing, and also in blogging. The less formal, almost conversational tone of this blog also allows the reader to feel more comfortable with the information they are trying to take in. To me this is extremely important because as a student interested in photojournalism with almost no background knowledge, reading things written at more of an accessible level is very helpful for me.
            The section of the blog, “Chats” is completely in a conversational tone, which would make sense, as it is a chat room. Here is what the chat room’s look like:
Sarah Z: Hi! I graduate this winter and I need time to put a stronger portfolio together. What sort of things/variety do I need to include, and how long after my graduation date will I still be eligible for internships?
Sean D. Elliot: Sarah, a lot depends on what you're looking to do. if you're aiming for newspapers you do need to show the range of work. everyone is a generalist at newspapers these days, so show as much as you can. of course don't show crappy photos just to show you've done something. I guess that should be obvious, but I've seen portfolios with the crumbiest spot news photos just for the sake of having spot news.
bettinahansen: I think it's important to show a range of work that reflects your personal vision.
Maddie McGarvey: So if you're not necessarily good at shooting sports or spot news, do you recommend including them in your portfolio anyways even if it's not your strongest work?
Michael P. King: Variety is good but don't sacrifice quality for variety. Edit your work to play up your strengths and conceal your weaknesses.
Sean D. Elliot: Better to show you do a few things very well and not show what you don't do well.

The chats are extremely informal and completely conversational. The readability score for this section of the chat was a 7.8. This use of plain language is important because the chat is clearly not meant to confuse people, but instead is meant to help them. These tips are aimed to help whoever reads the chat complete the task at hand or at least helps them to wrap their head around what needs to be done. Not much detail is used in these chats, most people use few to no descriptive words or phrases. They simply state the facts.
            Another section of the blog is completely comprised of the perspectives of current and past interns. This is set up in a question and answer format and the intern’s talk about things like what they have learned through interning as a photojournalist, how they landed the position, what their biggest struggles were and what their favorite part of the experience was. What I love about how plain style fits into this is how the blog is truly set up to help young adults interested in the field of visual journalism. The articles and posts are written without any hidden context, in words that the average person uses regularly, and are concise and get the point across.
            One of the advice column articles, “Designing a Better Portfolio Website” was written by an accomplished photojournalist and professor at UMass named Brian McDermott who has had his work published in the New York Times, The Boston Globe, Bon App├ętit magazine as well as in many other places.  I took this opening section of McDermott’s article and entered it into the readability calculator:
“A photojournalist needs a website. Having a portfolio website in 2011 is as pro forma as getting your pictures in focus. Editors use portfolio websites to find freelancers, gauge job and internship applicants and follow the progress of photographers they know. Potential subjects use websites to see if you’ll present them fairly. Yet for some photojournalists, having a website is an afterthought– even though for editors and sources it’s often a first impression. If you have a poorly implemented website, that first impression is the digital equivalent of having a piece of lettuce stuck in your front teeth.”
 The scores came out higher than I had anticipated, which I assume is because of some of the word choice he used. But with an average grade level of 11.5, I would think it safe to assume that this piece is fairly accessible for most readers. I mentioned McDermott’s accomplishments to point out the fact that he is indeed a professional, and knows what he is talking about.  While he may not have written this piece at the seventh grade reading level, he did write it in a style that is not too dense, fairly plain and still interesting. This proves that writing in plain style does not lose credibility for the writer.
            Based off of my observation of the National Press Photographers Association blog website I have drawn a few conclusions about plain language in general. In this situation, as well as in similar situations, the use of plain language is important for many reasons. Plain language is useful when communicating to the masses. It allows communication between most age groups, educational backgrounds, and professional status. Plain language used on all blog websites is efficient because it allows the people communicating to clearly state what they want to say, how they want to say it, so it is easily interpreted. After all, the purpose of a blog such as this is to help people, not confuse them. I can also see how plain language can be a slight hindrance. Sometimes being too plain can be similar to being vague which could be just as confusing as if official style had been used. But in this situation I believe that plain language is more helpful than harmful.
            Plain style doesn’t mean a compromise in writing ability is being made. The use of plain style does not make you sound uneducated. It does not make you seem less credible. And it certainly does not need to be dry. Using plain language helps us see the upsides of keeping things short, sweet and to the point with out over complicating things. In a setting like the National Press Photographers Association student blog, the use of plain language is perfect. Short logical sentences, the right amount of detail, conversational tone, common words and the use of strong active voice are all extremely important when talking about plain language and when trying to help someone get their foot in the door as an emerging photojournalist.


 Abbey Grall

 Works Cited:
THE VISUAL STUDENT: Student NPPA blog